In 2010, Japan declared that it would not sign a second Kyoto period because it would impose restrictions on its main economic competitors, China, India and Indonesia.  A similar note was given by the New Zealand Prime Minister in November 2012.  At the 2012 conference, the objections of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan were ignored at the last minute by government officials and suggested that they would probably withdraw or not ratify the treaty.  These defections add additional pressure to the UNFCCC process, which some consider tedious and costly: in the United Kingdom alone, in two years, the Department of Climate Change has flown more than 3,000 flights at a price of more than 1,300,000 pounds sterling.  In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007),  the Copenhagen Agreement (2009),  on the Cancun Agreements (2010),  and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012).  The UNFCCC is a „Rio Convention,“ one of three that was adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit. The UNFCCC came into force on March 21, 1994. Today, it has an almost universal endorsement. Countries that have ratified the convention are called parties to the convention. The prevention of „dangerous“ human interventions in the climate system is the primary objective of the UNFCCC. The lack of significant progress over the past 18 years and the achievement of effective political contracts between the parties to reduce CO2 emissions has led some countries, such as the United States, to refrain from ratifying the most important UNFCCC agreement, the Kyoto Protocol, largely because the treaty did not encode developing countries.
, which now includes the largest CO2 emitters. However, the historical responsibility for climate change since industrialization, which is debated in the discussions, and the responsibility for emissions from the consumption and importation of goods have not been taken into account.  It also led Canada to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol in 2011, in the desire not to induce its citizens to pay penalties that would lead to capital transfers from Canada.  Both the United States and Canada are reviewing voluntary internal emission reduction programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions outside the Kyoto Protocol.  The protocol has been ratified by 192 parties to the UNFCCC, including the EU and its member states. However, because many large emitters are not part of Kyoto, it covers only about 12% of global emissions.